When it comes to the use of force in communication – particularly the complex issue of spanking children – we need to look at all the possible consequences. This section of the course explores the issues and looks at how using force to try and communicate a desire or to punish for a perceived transgression can affect behavior in the short- and long-term.

Learning Outcomes:

  • Understand the different between punishment and protective force
  • Know that punishment can have long-term effects counter to those intended